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My research also examines the short- and long-term consequences of exposure to violence on public opinion. Researchers have long struggled to understand why some victimized individuals adopt pro-social outgroup beliefs while others seem to adopt more exclusionary ones. My research in this area investigates these divergent effects. My recent work in this area has focused on the long-term consequences of violent victimization, examining how the lessons of this victimhood become embedded in historical memory and applied to present conflicts. Current working papers investigate the effects of exposure to daily, `low-level' violence on public opinion in protracted conflicts. 

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